Child abuse is the physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or neglect of children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of
commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in
harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.
Most child abuse occurs in a child's home, with a smaller amount
occurring in the organizations, schools or communities the child
interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and child sexual abuse.
Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what
constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from
his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect,
child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a
parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or
emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act
which presents an imminent risk of serious harm". A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may now be described as a "pedopath".
Child abuse can take several forms: The four main types are physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect.
Main article: Child neglect
Child neglect is where the responsible adult fails to provide
adequately for various needs, including physical (failure to provide
adequate food, clothing, or hygiene), emotional (failure to provide
nurturing or affection), educational (failure to enroll a child in
school), or medical (failure to medicate the child or take him or her to
Main article: Physical abuse
A Christian girl who was bruised and burnt during the Orissa violence
in August 2008
Physical abuse is physical aggression directed at a child by an
adult. It can involve punching, striking, kicking, shoving, slapping,
burning, bruising, pulling ears or hair, stabbing, choking or shaking a
child. Shaking a child can cause shaken baby syndrome,
which can lead to intracranial pressure, swelling of the brain, diffuse
axonal injury, and oxygen deprivation; which leads to patterns such as
failure to thrive, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, bulging or tense
fontanels, altered breathing, and dilated pupils. The transmission of
toxins to a child through its mother (such as with fetal alcohol syndrome) can also be considered physical abuse in some jurisdictions.
Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the infliction of
physical injuries or actions that place the child in obvious risk of
serious injury or death to be illegal. Beyond this, there is
considerable variation. The distinction between child discipline
and abuse is often poorly defined. Cultural norms about what
constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider
public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse.
Some human-service professionals claim that cultural norms that
sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and
have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms.
The use of any kind of force against children as a disciplinary measure is illegal in 24 countries around the world, but prevalent and socially accepted in many others. See corporal punishment in the home for more information.
Child sexual abuse
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact
against a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of
the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to
produce child pornography.
Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, physical injury to the child, among other problems. Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.
Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims;
approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers,
fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances
such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbours; strangers are
the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.
Out of all the possible forms of abuse, emotional abuse is the
hardest to define. It could include name-calling, ridicule, degradation,
destruction of personal belongings, torture or destruction of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labeling or humiliation.
Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from
the abuser, internalizing the abusive words, or fighting back by insulting the abuser. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment disorder, a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse, learned helplessness, and overly passive behavior.
According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child
Abuse, in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child
abuse, physical abuse 22%, sexual abuse 8%, emotional maltreatment 4%,
and other forms of maltreatment 12%.
A UNICEF report on child wellbeing
stated that the United States and the United Kingdom ranked lowest
among industrial nations with respect to the wellbeing of children. It
also found that child neglect and child abuse were far more common in
single-parent families than in families where both parents are present.
In the USA, neglect is defined as the failure to meet the basic needs
of children including housing, clothing, food and access to medical
care. Researchers found over 91,000 cases of neglect in one year (from
October 2005 to 30 September 2006) using information from a database of
cases verified by protective services agencies.
Neglect could also take the form of financial abuse by not buying the child adequate materials for survival.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
reports that for each year between 2000 and 2005, "female parents
acting alone" were most likely to be perpetrators of child abuse.
A child abuse fatality is when a child’s death is the result of abuse
or neglect, or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a
child’s death. In the United States, 1,730 children died in 2008 due to
factors related to abuse; this is a rate of 2.33 per 100,000 U.S.
Child abuse fatalities are widely recognized as being under-counted; it
is estimated that between 60-85% of child fatalities due to
maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates. Younger
children are at a much higher risk for being killed, as are African
Americans. Girls and boys, however, are killed at similar rates.
Caregivers, and specifically mothers, are more likely to be the
perpetrators of a child abuse fatality, than anyone else, including
strangers, relatives, and non-relative caregivers. Family situations
which place children at risk include moving, unemployment, having
non-family members living in the household. A number of policies and
programs have been put into place to try to better understand and to
prevent child abuse fatalities, including: safe haven laws, child
fatality review teams, training for investigators, shaken baby syndrome
prevention programs, and child abuse death laws which mandate harsher
sentencing for taking the life of a child.
Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes. Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse. Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children.
However, it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of
child abuse, or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by
tendencies in the abuser.
can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. One U.S. study found
that parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin,
were much more likely to mistreat their children, and were also much
more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments.
Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child
maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. This study
specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse, and
between cocaine and sexual abuse.
Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse. In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession.
It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary
care-taker of the children. Now that the father was in that role, the
children began to come in with injuries.
There are strong associations between exposure to child abuse in all
its forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions. The strongest
evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE's) series of
studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and
higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions, high-risk health
behaviors and shortened lifespan. A recent publication, Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse,
makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly
public-health issue that should be addressed by the healthcare system.
Children with a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems, or a disorganized attachment style. Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms, as well as anxiety, depressive, and acting out symptoms. A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment. When some of these children become parents, especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD),
dissociative symptoms, and other sequelae of child abuse, they may
encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young children's
needs and normative distress, which may in turn lead to adverse
consequences for their child's social-emotional development.
Despite these potential difficulties, psychosocial intervention can be
effective, at least in some cases, in changing the ways maltreated
parents think about their young children.
Victims of childhood abuse, it is claimed, also suffer from different
types of physical health problems later in life. Some reportedly suffer
from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain
with no identifiable reason.
Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe
that their abuse is, or can be, the cause of different health problems
in their adult life, for the great majority their abuse was not directly
associated with those problems, indicating that sufferers were most
likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems,
instead of their childhood abuse.
The effects of child abuse vary, depending on the type of abuse. A
2006 study found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly
related to adult depressive symptoms, while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence
had a moderately strong association, and physical abuse a moderate one.
For depression, experiencing more than two kinds of abuse exerted
synergetically stronger symptoms. Sexual abuse was particularly
deleterious in its intrafamilial form, for symptoms of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and limbic irritability.
Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility
than any other type of abuse studied, and was second only to emotional
abuse in its relationship with dissociative symptoms. More generally, in
the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a
French INSEE survey,
some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated
illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18
years. According Georges Menahem,
the French sociologist who found out these correlations by studying
health inequalities, these relationships show that inequalities in terms
of illness and suffering are not only social. Health inequality also
has its origins in the family,
where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems
(lack of affection, parental discord, the prolonged absence of a parent,
or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that
individuals report having experienced in childhood.
Children who are physically abused are likely to receive bone fractures, particularly rib fractures, and may have a higher risk of developing cancer.
Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely
to be arrested as juveniles, 28% more likely to be arrested as adults,
and 30% more likely to commit violent crime.
The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively
minor (bruises or cuts) or severe (broken bones, hemorrhage, or even
death). In some cases the physical effects are temporary; however, the
pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted.
Meanwhile, the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on physical
health is just beginning to be explored. The long-term effects can be:
Shaken baby syndrome.
Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in
permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases).
Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in
the skull) after bleeding in the brain, damage to the spinal cord and
neck, and rib or bone fractures (Institute of Neurological Disorders and
Impaired brain development. Child abuse and neglect have been shown,
in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form
or grow properly, resulting in impaired development (De Bellis &
Thomas, 2003). These alterations in brain maturation have long-term
consequences for cognitive, language, and academic abilities
(Watts-English, Fortson, Gibler, Hooper, & De Bellis, 2006). NSCAW
found more than three-quarters of foster children between 1 and 2 years
of age to be at medium to high risk for problems with brain development,
as opposed to less than half of children in a control sample (ACF/OPRE,
Poor physical health. Several studies have shown a relationship
between various forms of household dysfunction (including childhood
abuse) and poor health (Flaherty et al., 2006; Felitti, 2002). Adults
who experienced abuse or neglect during childhood are more likely to
suffer from physical ailments such as allergies, arthritis, asthma,
bronchitis, high blood pressure, and ulcers (Springer, Sheridan, Kuo,
& Carnes, 2007).
On the other hand, there are some children who are raised in child
abuse, but who manage to do unexpectedly well later in life regarding
the preconditions. Such children have been termed dandelion children, as inspired from the way that dandelions seem to prosper irrespective of soil, sun, drought, or rain. Such children (or currently grown-ups) are of high interest in finding factors that mitigate the effects of child abuse.
April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983. U.S. President Barack Obama continued that tradition by declaring April 2009 Child Abuse Prevention Month. One way the Federal government of the United States
provides funding for child-abuse prevention is through Community-Based
Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CBCAP).
Resources for child-protection services are sometimes limited.
According to Hosin (2007), "a considerable number of traumatized abused
children do not gain access to protective child-protection strategies."
Briere (1992) argues that only when "lower-level violence" of children
ceases to be culturally tolerated will there be changes in the victimization and police protection of children.
A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse.
Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, first developed to treat
sexually abused children, is now used for victims of any kind of trauma.
It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinical depression and anxiety.
It also includes a component for non-offending parents. Several studies
have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved
more than children undergoing certain other therapies. Data on the
effects of TF-CBT for children who experienced only non-sexual abuse was
not available as of 2006.
Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy
was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. It
targets externalizing behaviors and strengthens prosocial behaviors.
Offending parents are included in the treatment, to improve parenting
skills/practices. It is supported by one randomized study.
Child-parent psychotherapy was designed to improve the child-parent
relationship following the experience of domestic violence. It targets
trauma-related symptoms in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers,
including PTSD, aggression, defiance, and anxiety. It is supported by
two studies of one sample.
Other forms of treatment include group therapy, play therapy, and art
therapy. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist
the client, depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. Play
therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with
therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring, drawing,
painting, etc.). The design of a child's artwork can be a symbolic
representation of what they are feeling, relationships with friends or
family, and more. Being able to discuss and analyze a child's artwork
can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child.
One of the most challenging ethical dilemmas arising from child abuse
relates to the parental rights of abusive parents or caretakers with
regard to their children, particularly in medical settings. In the United States, the 2008 New Hampshire case of Andrew Bedner
drew attention to this legal and moral conundrum. Bedner, accused of
severely injuring his infant daughter, sued for the right to determine
whether or not she remain on life support; keeping her alive, which
would have prevented a murder charge, created a motive for Bedner to act
that conflicted with the apparent interests of his child. Bioethicists Jacob M. Appel and Thaddeus Mason Pope
recently argued, in separate articles, that such cases justify the
replacement of the accused parent with an alternative decision-maker.
Child abuse also poses ethical concerns related to confidentiality,
as victims may be physically or psychologically unable to report abuse
to authorities. Accordingly, many jurisdictions and professional bodies
have made exceptions to standard requirements for confidentiality and legal privileges
in instances of child abuse. Medical professionals, including doctors,
therapists, and other mental health workers typically owe a duty of
confidentiality to their patients and clients, either by law and/or the
standards of professional ethics, and cannot disclose personal information without the consent
of the individual concerned. This duty conflicts with an ethical
obligation to protect children from preventable harm. Accordingly,
confidentiality is often waived when these professionals have a good
faith suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to
occur and make a report to local child protection
authorities. This exception allows professionals to breech
confidentiality and make a report even when the child or his/her parent
or guardian has specifically instructed to the contrary. Child abuse is
also a common exception to Physician–patient privilege:
a medical professional may be called upon to testify in court as to
otherwise privileged evidence about suspected child abuse despite the
wishes of the child and his/her family.
"ONESTAND" against child abuse
There are organizations at national, state, and county levels in the
United States that provide community leadership in preventing child
abuse and neglect. The National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds and
Prevent Child Abuse America are two national organizations with member
organizations at the state level.
Many investigations into child abuse are handled on the local level
by Child Advocacy Centers. Started over 25 years ago at what is now
known as the National Children's Advocacy Center
in Huntsville, Alabama by District Attorney Robert "Bud" Cramer these
multi-disciplinary teams have met to coordinate their efforts so that
cases of child abuse can be investigated quickly and efficiently,
ultimately reducing trauma to the child and garnering better
convictions. These Child Advocacy Centers (known as CACs) have standards set by the National Children's Alliance.
Other organizations focus on specific prevention strategies. The
National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome focuses its efforts on the
specific issue of preventing child abuse that is manifested as shaken baby syndrome. Mandated reporter training is a program used to prevent ongoing child abuse.
- ^ "Child abuse - definition of child abuse by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
- ^ a b Leeb, R.T.; Paulozzi, L.J.; Melanson, C.; Simon, T.R.; Arias, I. (1 January 2008). "Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- ^ Herrenkohl, R.C. (2005). "The definition of child maltreatment: from case study to construct". Child Abuse and Neglect 29 (5): 413–24. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.04.002. PMID 15970317.
- ^ http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pedopath
- ^ "Child Abuse and Neglect: Types, Signs, Symptoms, Help and Prevention". helpguide.org. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- ^ A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect (HHS), USA, 2003.
- ^ Noh Anh, Helen (1994). "Cultural Diversity and the Definition of Child Abuse", in Barth, R.P. et al., Child welfare research review, Columbia University Press, 1994, p. 28. ISBN 0231080743
- ^ Haeuser, A. A. (1990). "Banning parental use of physical punishment: Success in Sweden". International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. Hamburg.
- ^ "States with full abolition". Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.
- ^ a b "Child Sexual Abuse". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2 April 2008.
- ^ "Guidelines
for psychological evaluations in child protection matters. Committee on
Professional Practice and Standards, APA Board of Professional
Affairs". The American Psychologist 54 (8): 586–93. August 1999. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.586. PMID 10453704. "Abuse, sexual (child):
generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other
person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the
child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the
adult or other person.".
- ^ Martin
J, Anderson J, Romans S, Mullen P, O'Shea M (1993). "Asking about child
sexual abuse: methodological implications of a two stage survey". Child Abuse & Neglect 17 (3): 383–92. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(93)90061-9. PMID 8330225.
- ^ Child sexual abuse definition from the NSPCC
- ^ Roosa M.W., Reinholtz C., Angelini P.J. (1999). "The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27 (1): 65–76. PMID 10197407.
- ^ Widom C.S. (1999). "Post-traumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up," American Journal of Psychiatry; 156(8):1223-1229.
- ^ Levitan, R. D., N. A. Rector, Sheldon, T., & Goering, P. (2003). "Childhood
adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders
in a community sample of Ontario: Issues of co-morbidity and specificity," Depression & Anxiety; 17, 34-42.
- ^ a b Journals.lww.com
- ^ Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J. (2000). "Child
Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse,
Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment". 15 Journal of Interpersonal Violence 489 (5): 2000. doi:10.1177/088626000015005003.
- ^ Jpedhc.org
- ^ Dinwiddie S, Heath AC, Dunne MP, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, Slutske WS, Bierut LJ, Statham DB et al. (2000). "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study". Psychological Medicine 30 (1): 41–52. doi:10.1017/S0033291799001373. PMID 10722174.
- ^ a b Whealin, Julia (22 May 2007). "Child Sexual Abuse". National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs.
- ^ Finkelhor, D. (1994). "Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse". The Future of Children (Princeton University) 4 (2): 31–53. doi:10.2307/1602522. JSTOR 1602522. PMID 7804768.
- ^ Crimes against Children Research Center
- ^ Family Research Laboratory
- ^ Gorey,
K.M.; Leslie, D.R. (April 1997). "The prevalence of child sexual abuse:
integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement
biases". Child Abuse & Neglect 21 (4): 391–8. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9. PMID 9134267.
- ^ a b "Child Abuse". The National Center for Victims of Crime.
- ^ "Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics". National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse. 1998. Archived from the original on 1998-05-15.
- ^ Child Poverty in Respective: An Overview of Child Wellbeing in Rich Countries. UNICEF: Innocenti Research Center, Report Card 7.
- ^ "Sometimes They Can't Afford to Leave their Abusers", Santa Ynez Valley Journal, California, 22 October 2009.
- ^ Stats for 2000; Stats for 2001; Stats for 2002; Stats for 2003; Stats for 2004; Stats for 2005.
- ^ Child Maltreatment 2008, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, p. 55.
- ^ For a review of this literature, see, Douglas, E.M., 2005, Child maltreatment fatalities: What do we know, what have we learned, and where do we go from here?,pp
4.1-4.18, in Child Victimization, edited by K. Kendall-Tackett & S.
Giacomoni, published by Civic Research Institute, Kingston, N.J.
- ^ Fontana, V.J. (October 1984). "The maltreatment syndrome of children". Pediatric Annals 13 (10): 736–44. PMID 6504584.
- ^ Finkelman, Byrgen (1995). "Introduction". Child abuse: a multidisciplinary survey. New York: Garland. p. xvii. ISBN 0-8153-1813-8.
- ^ a b Ross, S. (1996). "Risk of physical abuse to children of spouse abusing parents". Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (7): 589. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(96)00046-4.
- ^ Murphy
JM, Jellinek M, Quinn D, Smith G, Poitrast FG, Goshko M (1991).
"Substance abuse and serious child mistreatment: prevalence, risk, and
outcome in a court sample". Child Abuse & Neglect 15 (3): 197–211. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(91)90065-L. PMID 2043972.
- ^ Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T (1992). "Parental substance abuse and the nature of child maltreatment". Child Abuse & Neglect 16 (4): 475–83. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(92)90064-X. PMID 1393711.
- ^ Child Abuse. Florida Performs
- ^ Hughes, Sandra (20 May 2009). "Child Abuse Spikes During Recession", CBS News.
- ^ Middlebrooks, J.S.; Audage, A.C. (2008). The Effects of Childhood Stress on Health Across the Lifespan. Centers for Disease Control.
- ^ Dolezal, T.; McCollum, D.; Callahan, M. (2009). Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse. Academy on Violence and Abuse.
- ^ Gauthier
L, Stollak G, Messé L, Aronoff J (July 1996). "Recall of childhood
neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current
psychological functioning". Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (7): 549–59. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(96)00043-9. PMID 8832112.
- ^ Malinosky-Rummell R, Hansen DJ (July 1993). "Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse". Psychological Bulletin 114 (1): 68–79. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.68. PMID 8346329.
- ^ Lyons-Ruth,
K.; Jacobvitz, D. (1999). "Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss,
relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional
strategies". In Cassidy, J.; Shaver, P.. Handbook of Attachment. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 520–554.
- ^ Solomon, J.; George, C., ed (1999). Attachment Disorganization. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1572304804.
- ^ Main,
M.; Hesse, E. (1990). "Parents' Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are
related to infant disorganized attachment status". In Greenberg, M.T.;
Ciccehetti, D; Cummings, E.M.. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research, and Intervention. University of Chicago Press. pp. 161–184.
- ^ Carlson, E.A. (August 1998). "A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation". Child Development 69 (4): 1107–28. PMID 9768489.
- ^ Lyons-Ruth,
K. (February 1996). "Attachment relationships among children with
aggressive behavior problems: the role of disorganized early attachment
patterns". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.1.64. PMID 8907085.
- ^ Lyons-Ruth
K, Alpern L, Repacholi B (April 1993). "Disorganized infant attachment
classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of
hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom". Child Development (Blackwell Publishing) 64 (2): 572–85. doi:10.2307/1131270. JSTOR 1131270. PMID 8477635.
- ^ Carlson, V. et al.
(1995). "Finding order in disorganization: Lessons from research on
maltreated infants' attachments to their caregivers". In Cicchetti, D.;
Carlson, V.. Child Maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–157.
- ^ Cicchetti, D. et al. (1990). "An organizational perspective on attachment beyond infancy". In Greenberg, M.; Cicchetti, D; MCummings, M.. Attachment in the Preschool Years. University of Chicago Press. pp. 3–50. ISBN 0226306291.
- ^ >Schechter DS,
Coates, SW, Kaminer T, Coots T, Zeanah CH, Davies M, Schonfield IS,
Marshall RD, Liebowitz MR, Trabka KA, McCaw J, Myers MM (2008). "Distorted
maternal mental representations and atypical behavior in a clinical
sample of violence-exposed mothers and their toddlers". Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 9 (2): 123–149. doi:10.1080/15299730802045666. PMC 2577290. PMID 18985165.
- ^ Schechter DS, Zygmunt A, Coates SW, Davies M, Trabka KA, McCaw J, Kolodji A., Robinson JL (2007). "Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children's mental representations of self and others". Attachment & Human Development 9 (3): 187–205. doi:10.1080/14616730701453762. PMC 2078523. PMID 18007959.
- ^ Schechter
DS, Myers MM, Brunelli SA, Coates SW, Zeanah CH, Davies M,
Grienenberger JF, Marshall RD, McCaw JE, Trabka KA, Liebowitz MR (2006).
mothers can change their minds about their toddlers: Understanding how a
novel use of video feedback supports positive change of maternal
attributions". Infant Mental Health Journal 27 (5): 429–448. doi:10.1002/imhj.20101. PMC 2078524. PMID 18007960.
- ^ a b Takele Hamnasu, MBA. Impact of Childhood Abuse on Adult Health. Amberton University.
- ^ "Study of Living Conditions 1986-1987" INSEE survey with a sample of 13-154 individuals, cf. Menahem G., "Problèmes de l'enfance, statut social et santé des adultes", IRDES, biblio No 1010, pp. 59-63, Paris.
- ^ Kemp AM, Dunstan F, Harrison S, et al. (2008). "Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review". BMJ 337 (oct02 1): a1518. doi:10.1136/bmj.a1518. PMC 2563260. PMID 18832412.
- ^ Fuller-Thomson
E, Brennenstuhl S (July 2009). "Making a link between childhood
physical abuse and cancer: results from a regional representative
survey". Cancer 115 (14): 3341–50. doi:10.1002/cncr.24372. PMID 19472404.
- ^ Child Abuse Statistics
- ^ Morad Y, Wygnansky-Jaffe T, Levin AV (2010) Retinal haemorrhage in abusive head trauma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 38:514-520.
- ^ Factsheet
- ^ Ellis, Bruce J.; Boyce, W. Thomas (2008). "Biological Sensitivity to Context". Current Directions in Psychological Science 17 (3): 183–187. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00571.x.
- ^ Child Welfare Information Gateway, History of National Child Abuse Prevention Month. 3 April 2009.
- ^ Presidential Proclamation Marking National Child Abuse Prevention Month. The White House - Press Room, 1 April 2009.
- ^ U.S. Administration for Children and Families. Department of Health and Human Services. Children's Bureau.
- ^ Hosin, A.A., ed (2007). Responses to traumatized children. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 211. ISBN 1403996806.
- ^ Briere, John (1992). Child abuse trauma. Sage. p. 7. ISBN 080393713X.
- ^ a b c d Cohen,
J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Murray, L.K.; Igelman, R. (2006). "Psychosocial
Interventions for Maltreated and Violence-Exposed Children". Journal of Social Issues 62 (4): 737–766. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00485.x.
- ^ Schechter DS, Zygmunt A, Trabka KA, Davies M, Colon E, Kolodji A, McCaw J (2007). "Child
mental representations of attachment when mothers are traumatized: The
relationship of family-drawings to story-stem completion". Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 3: 119–141. PMC 2268110. PMID 18347736.
- ^ a b c Appel, J.M. (October 2009). "Mixed motives, mixed outcomes when accused parents won't agree to withdraw care". Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (10): 635–7. doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030510. PMID 19793945.
- ^ "Springfield man denies charges in infant assault", Rutland Herald, New Hampshire, 5 August 2008.
- ^ "Springfield Father Charged with Baby's Murder", WCAX.com, Vermont, 21 January 2009.
- ^ "Withdrawal Okay When Surrogate's Refusal to Consent Based on Wrong Reasons", Medical Futility (blog).
- ^ National Center for Youth Law. "Minor Consent, Confidentiality, and Child Abuse Reporting". Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- ^ Nationalcac.org
- ^ Nationalcac.org
- ^ Nationalcac.org
- ^ Nationalchildrensalliance.org
- Crist, T. A. J.; Washburn, A.; Park, H.;
Hood, I.; Hickey, M. A. (1997). "Cranial Bone Displacement as a
Taphonomic Process in Potential Child Abuse Cases". In Haglund, W. D.
& Sorg, M. A.. Forensic Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 319–336.
- Crosson-Tower, C. (2008). Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. ISBN 0205503268. OCLC 150902303.
- Finkelhor, D. (2008-02-19). Childhood Victimization: Violence, Crime, and Abuse in the Lives of Young People. Oxford University Press. p. 244. ISBN 9780195342857. OCLC 162501989.
- Hoyano, L.; Keenan C. (2007). Child Abuse: Law and Policy Across Boundaries. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019829946X. OCLC 79004390.
- Korbin, Jill E. (1983). Child abuse and neglect: cross-cultural perspectives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0520050703. OCLC 144570871.
- Turton, Jackie (2008). Child Abuse, Gender, and Society. New York: Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 0415365058. OCLC 144570871.